What is the cement |its definition , composition , manufacturing in details in 2023

Cement is the collection of extremely fine particles having the properties of adhesive and cohesive which provide a binding medium for the different ingredients.  cement is the main material of construction nowadays.


The process of the final form of cement is by burning a mixture of calcium and clay at a very high temperature and then grinding the clinker so produce to a fine powder.


cement first time was produced by mason Joseph aspirin in England in 1924. And that time he patented portable cement.


Usually, the color of cement is grey, and the raw material of cement is limestone, clay &marl.



What is the cement
Cement bags



Types of cement


Basically, in ordinary Portland cement, there are many varieties of cement but here I am going to explain some of the important varieties

  • White cement
  • colored cement
  • Quick setting cement
  • Rapid hardening cement
  • Low heat cement
  • pozzolana cement
  • Expanding cement
  • High alumina cement
  • Blast furnace cement
  • Acid resistance cement
  • Sulfate resistance cement
  • Fly Ash blended cement


Now we are going to discuss this in details 



1. White cement: when the cement is made by free from coloring oxides of iron, manganese, and chromium the results come into white cement.


And for the manufacturing of white cement oil is used instead of coal for burning .because of color is white it is used for floor finishing, plastering, etc.


and nowadays you can see that white cement is used in swimming pools to replace the glazed tiles. And is used for fixing marble and glazed tiles.



2. colored cement: cement of different color are made by the intimate mixing of pigment with ordinary cement.


By the mixing of chlorine oxide, it gives the green color, cobalt produces the blue color, and the same as iron oxide with different proportions give brown, red, and yellow.


and the side also mixing of manganese dioxide give a black or brown color cement. So basically this cement is used for the finishing touches of the floor, walls, windows, etc.



What is the cement
cement used in plasterwork



3. Quick-setting cement: during the manufacturing of the cement by reducing the percentage of gypsum and adding a small amount of aluminum sulfate we produced the quick-setting cement. finer grinding also adds to quick-setting properties.


This cement starts setting within 5 minutes after the addition of water and becomes hard within 30 minutes. This type of cement is used to lay concrete under static or slowly running water.



4. Rapid hardening cement: during the manufacturing of this cement is produced by the increasing lime content and it burning at a high temperature .and after that grinding to make it very fine is also important


.even the initial and final setting time of this cement is the same as the Portland cement .this cement gains its strength in the early days so this property helps in earlier removal of the form works and speed in construction activity.



5. Low Heat cement: During mass concrete works like dam construction, the heat produced due to the hydration of cement will not get dispersed easily and this may cause cracks so in such construction it is important to use low-heat cement.


this cement contains a low percentage (5%) of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and a higher percentage (46%) of dicalcium (C2S).


6. Pozzolana cement: Pozzolana cement is a volcanic power found in Italy. It can manufacture by shales and certain types of clay also. In this cement, the pozzolana material is 10 to 30 percent and it can resist the action of sulfate.


it releases less heat during the setting and it imparts a higher degree of water tightness its compressive strength is low but has high tensile strength. it is generally used for mass concrete works. And it is used in sewage line works.



7. Expanding cement: during manufacturing, some expanding mediums like super aluminate and a stabilizing agent mix with the ordinary cement so due to this type of expanding medium this cement expands as it sets .this cement is used for filling the cracks in the concrete structure.



8. High alumina cement: it is produced by calcining a mixture of lime and bauxite and that’s why it is more resistant to sulfate and acid attack .and it achieves its almost full strength within 24 hours of adding water .that’s why it is used underwater works.



9. Blast furnace cement: During the manufacturing of pig iron, slag comes out as a waste product. by grinding clinkers of cement with about 60 to 65 percent this cement is produced .and these cement properties are more and same as the ordinary cement.



10. Acid Resistance cement: this type of cement is manufactured by using acid-resistant aggregates such as quartz, quartzite, sodium silicate, or soluble glass. this cement has good resistance to the action of acid and water. This type of cement is generally used in chemical factories.



11. Sulphate Resistance cement: the process of manufacturing this cement is by keeping the percentage of tricalcium aluminate below five percent in ordinary cement, basically this cement is used in the construction of structures that are likely to be damaged by alkaline conditions.



12. Fly Ash blended cement: this type of cement manufactured with fly ash which is the byproduct of thermal stations .in the thermal station the particles of fly ash is fly in the air, creating air pollution and thermal power stations have to spend a lot of money to arrest fly ash and dispose of safely.


it is found that one of the best ways to dispose of fly ash is to mix it with cement in controlled conditions and drive some of the beneficiary effects on cement.


now generally cement factories produce fly ash in the air in their thermal station or borrow it from other thermal stations and further process it to make it suitable to blend with cement.



Fly ash blended cement has good quality resistance to weather action. Its strength gains are the same as ordinary Portland cement.



Properties of ordinary Portland cement  


1. Chemical properties: Portland cement’s chemical properties depend on its chemical compounds concerning their mix quantities, so this cement consists of the following chemical compounds:


a. Tricalcium silicate                       3CaO.SiO2 (C3S)                       40 %

b. Dicalcium silicate                        2CaO.SiO2 (C2S)                       30 %

c. Tricalcium Aluminate                3Ca.Al2O3 (C3A)       11%

d. Tetracalcium Aluminate            4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3(C3AF) 11%



What is the cement
cement used in concrete work



and there are maybe some small quantities of impurities present such as calcium oxide and magnesium oxide.



During the mixing of water in the cement, tricalcium aluminate is the first to react and cause an initial set. Its generates heat of amount and other side tricalcium silicate hydrate early and developed strength in the first 28 days.


2. Physical properties: some physical properties should be checked before selecting Portland cement for any civil works. and according to the IS 265-1967 some methods of testing and prescribe the limits :



a. Fineness: it is measured in the term of the percentage of weight retained after sieving the cement through a 90-micron sieve or by the surface area of cement in square centimeters per gram of cement.


According to the IS Code term of a specific surface should not be less than 2250cm square/gm.


b. Setting time: for an initial setting time minimum period should be 30 minutes and a maximum period of 600 minutes as the maximum setting time is specified by IS code.



c. Soundness: after the concrete has hardened it is necessary to ensure that no volumetric changes take place, the cement is said to be unsound.



d. Crushing strength: a mortar cube is made with standard sand tested in the compressive testing machine as per the specification of IS code. the minimum strength specified is 16 N/mm square after 3 days and 22 N/mm square after 7 days of curing.



there are so many companies that are manufacturing cement and some of them are given below.


list of companies


2.            A R Industries And Trading

3.            AADI CEMENTS PVT LTD

4.            ACC LIMITED

5.            ADITI INDUSTRIES

6.            ADITYA CEMENT

8.            AGARWAL MIN CHEM LTD







15.         Aura Cements Private Limited     


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A dedicated civil engineer with more than 5 years of practical experience in construction as a site engineer founded our company. I am passionate about all things civil engineering and construction. My mission is to make the complex field of civil engineering accessible to everyone.

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