What is concrete | Composition , types and uses in 2023

Concrete is a construction material that is most useable in the whole words. even you too have seen in your common life the use of concrete. like you have seen the construction of your own house,  or maybe any other house even during the construction of any flyover or bridge you may see it.so today here I am going to explain what is concrete, its uses, its types, and how it is manufactured.


what is concrete | composition and types



What is concrete?

Concrete is a composite material that is made by the mixing of binding materials like cement or lime along with aggregates like sand, gravel, stone, etc., and water in specific proportions. and once these ingredients are cement, aggregates are mixed inside the water in the required proportion then cement and water start to react with each other to bind themselves in a hardened mass .this hardened mass is the concrete.

Concrete = Binding materials +Fine aggregate & coarse aggregate +water +Admixture (optional)


What is the Grade of concrete?

According to the construction, the grade of concrete denotes its strength, M20, the first letter in Grade shows the mix, and 20 is the required strength in Mpa. So M20 Grade denotes that the compressive strength required for construction is 20Mpa.


By the lab test Grade of concrete is represented in mixed proportion. for M20 Grade the mix proportion can be 1:1.5:3, where 1 is the ratio of cement,1.5 is the ratio of sand, and 3 is the ratio of coarse aggregate.


So their strength is measured by the civil engineers at the construction site with a sample piece of concrete cube or cylindrical. these cube or cylinder are made during casting and after hardening, it is cured for 28 days .then a compressive strength test is performed to find the strength.


Use of concrete

Concrete is used every in types of construction .here are some construction works where it is used.

  • Concrete Dams
  • Residential Buildings
  • Marine Construction
  • Commercial Building
  • Culverts and sewers
  • Foundation
  • Fences
  • Concrete Bridges


what is concrete | composition and types

Composition of Concrete Mix

we already read above their basic ingredients which are used in the concrete mix so here are the details

  • Binding materials like cement or lime
  • Fine aggregate like sand
  • Coarse aggregate like stone chips, bricks chips
  • Water
  • Aggregate or inert materials
  • Admixture


Binding Materials:  the main ingredient of the concrete mix is the binding materials. And we know that cement is the most commonly used binding material. And somewhere lime could also be used .during the mix when cement reacts with water it creates the paste which coats the aggregate and the paste becomes hardened, bind the aggregates and form a stone-like material.


Aggregates: these are the basic two types

  • Fine aggregate
  • Coarse aggregate


Fine aggregate: fine aggregates are the particles when we use a 4.75mm IS sieve then 90% of particle pass through it and 10% size is between 4.75mm to 10mm and sand is the fine aggregate.


Coarse aggregate: coarse aggregate are the particles that 90% retain on a 4.75mm IS sieve .and 10% less than 4.75mm can pass. Gravel or crushed stone is the coarse aggregate.


Water: water plays an important role to make the concrete, water is required for the chemical reaction with the cement called hydration and then it gives the workability with the concrete .and the combination of water and cement is demoted by the water-cement ratio so lower the water-cement ratio the stronger the concrete, higher strength, less permeability.


Types of Concrete

Concrete is in different types but based on its material composition and purposes, it can be classified into three basic categories :

  • Lime concrete
  • Cement Concrete
  • Reinforcement cement concrete


Lime concrete: in this type lime is used as the main binding material, lime is usually mixed with surki and khoa or stones in the proportion 1:2:5 unless otherwise specified. stone or khoa are soaked in water before mixing .this type is used mainly in foundation and terrace roofing.


Cement concrete: it consists of cement, sand, brick chips, and stone chips of the required size. So most construction uses this type of composite as a main binding material. the ingredient composition is usually 1:2:4 or 1:3:6. And after mixing this amount of material in proportion the concrete mix is cured with water for 28 days for proper strength building.


Reinforcement cement concrete: this type of required when we need to enhance the tensile strength of concrete, steel reinforcement is added. when the eccentric load is applied to any structure then it is used. that’s why columns, slabs, and cantilever beams of this type are used in construction works.


In general, there are four sorts to settle on from counting on the work being done such as

  • Dry Ready mix
  • Ready mix
  • Bulk Dry Materials
  • Transit mix


Dry ready mix: this type basically may be found in home improvement and hardware stores. It comes in baggage starting from sixty to eighty pounds .in the baggage all ingredients are already mixed. it is easy to use and the tools needed to mix it are bucket, shovel, trowel, and a measured quantity of water.


Ready mix: in this concrete, the water is already supplementary to ready to combine. So in this, you don’t need to add any extra water by yourself.


Bulk dry material: in this, we just purchase the materials in bulk and put it all near. so whenever need just made it. but for this, we have much space to keep the materials.


Transit mix: this type is used where it is mixed at one place or made at one place but its use is at another place .so the t beaching plant we used to mix it and then it is loaded a in truck and truck go to the use place.


There are various types of concrete for different applications that are created by changing the proportion of the main ingredients. such as

  • High – strength
  • Stamped
  • Self-consolidating
  • Shotcrete
  • Glass
  • Rapid strength
  • High performance
  • Vacuum
  • Asphalt
  • Polymer
  • Light transmitting

High strength: this types of concrete have high strength that is over six thousand pounds per area unit. This high strength is manufactured by lowering the water-cement ratio.


Stamped: this type of concrete is used to make realistic patterns like natural stone, granite, and tiles. this stamping is applied to the concrete once it is in its plastic condition. this is utilized in the development of driveways, and interior floors.


High performance: it has more strength other than regular use concrete. This includes increased strength, durability, workability, and simplicity of usage.


Self-consolidating: this type once placed can compact by its weight. so during the casting, we don’t need any vibration to make it equivalent individually. It has high workability. generally called flowing concrete because of its nature.


Vacuum: it is defined as when we are casting at any formwork, we can pour water at the same time into the formwork. and if we found extra water there so we can remove this water by an air pump. So our structure reached its strength so fast .like normal concrete needs 28 days to reach its full compressive strength but the vacuum reaches in just 10 days.


Shotcrete: this refers to a method in which by a compressive air tube we transfer the concrete from one place to another place .so we use the compressed air pump.


what is concrete | composition and types


Glass concrete: in this concrete, we used recycled glass. the use of recycled glass, and gives long strength and high thermal insulation.


Asphalt: this may be material. This is used to make the roads, and parking areas.


Rapid strength: as the name implies this concrete can acquire strength within a few hours once it’s manufactured. That’s why these types are used for road repairs


Polymer: in this type at the place of binding material we use polymers. the assembly of polymer concrete can facilitate the reduction of the volume of voids within the mixture.


Light–transmitting: concrete that has a density less than 1920km/m^3 is classified as lightweight concrete .its depending on its aggregates which have lightweight. the samples of lightweight aggregate are stone, perlites, and scoria. It’s used for the development of long-span bridge decks.




Ques-1 . what is concrete explain in brief.

Ans:- Concrete is a composite material that is made by the mixing of binding materials like cement or lime along with aggregates like sand, gravel, stone, etc. and water in specific proportions .and once these ingredients are cement, aggregate mixed inside the water in the required proportion then cement and water start to react each other to bind themselves in a hardened mass .this hardens mass is the concrete.


Ques:-2.What is concrete made from?

Ans:- by the mixing of ingredients like cement, sand, and aggregates we used to make concrete.


Ques:-3. What are the three types of concrete?

Ans:  Lime concrete, Cement concrete, and Reinforcement cement concrete are the three types.


Ques:-4. What is the function of concrete?

Ans:- the function of concrete is to provide strength, durability, and workability to the structure.


Ques:-5. What is the density of concrete?

Ans:-the density is 2.4g/cm^3.





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A dedicated civil engineer with more than 5 years of practical experience in construction as a site engineer founded our company. I am passionate about all things civil engineering and construction. My mission is to make the complex field of civil engineering accessible to everyone.

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