Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer in 2023| what civil site engineer should know?

After completing a bachelor’s degree in civil, in everyone’s mind how they can get a good job? that’s why its important to know basic site knowledge for a civil engineer to get a better job 


And nowadays in the field too much competition for the job, but during the college course if you have studied well and have good knowledge of civil then there is a chance that you can get the job.


Still, in a fresher mind, they don’t know which are the main point should know about civil works, so today here we are going to tell you some essential points about the site by which you can understand civil works properly. and this will be the Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer 


Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer


why do we provide a distribution bar in the slab?


Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer
Rebar binding works


Basically, in the slab, first of all, we use the main bars, and then to keep the main bars in the position we use the distribution bar, and in a two-way slab, we consider the distribution bar as the main bar. In the slab, there is one way or two-way slab, for identity which is one way or which is two way there is a basic formula


Longer span/ shorter span < 2, so this is a two-way slab and if it comes greater than 2 then it’s a one-way slab.


For example, if the slab length is 6m and the breadth is 2m then according to the formula it comes greater than 2m which means it’s a one-way slab.


And in the two-way slab, we can see the load distribution around the slab.


weight of rod per meter length?-Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer


This is also an important point at a site what is the weight of the rod per meter length? because you will see at the site  lots of bars there for use in different structures so civil engineers must know how to calculate the weight of the bar .so here is the formula :


Weight of rod per meter length = d^2*l/162.2


Here d is indicated for the diameter of the bar & l for the length of the bar


So by this formula easily can calculate the bar weight .and at the site during the BBS it is very helpful for calculating the weight.


And there is some more point which is related to bars. L for column main rod in footing is 300 mm minimum. and there is also a formula by which can get the length that is equal to the 50d, where d is indicated for the diameter of the bar. And the hook length for the stirrups is 9d.


And in the cantilever beam anchorage length for the main steel is 69d.


Full form of different types of bars


This is the technical point of steel reinforcement


  1. TMX:- Thermal Powered bars.
  2. SD:- Super Ductile bars
  3. HYSD:- High Yield Strength deformed bars
  4. CTD:- Cold twisted bars deformed.

 Concrete grade-Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer

Grade cement  sand  aggregate
M7.5 1 4 8
M10 1 3 6
M15 1 2 4
M20 1 1.5 3
M25 1 1 2
M30 1 1 3



Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer
concrete work


 Parapet Wall-Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer


This is the basic element of any construction building, so it is important to know about it. The parapet wall height should be less than 1.2m of the building .and the water-cement ratio shall not exceed 0.45 in M20 and 0.50 M10/M15.


and some points which are related to the pipes and electrical conductivity are also important to know, so the sanitary pipes and electrical conduct will not be installed in between the column and beam.


 chair bars


In the construction of the slab, we are providing the chair bars, so 1 chair bar is provided every 1m^2 area that’s means spacing not more than 1 meter. And the bars which are used for making the chair they’re a minimum diameter will be 12mm.


The lapping of the reinforcement

Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer
Rebar work


The lapping of the reinforcement is different in different structural elements like


Reinforcement in slab : 60D ,D for Diameter

Reinforcement in Beam: 60 D, D for Diameter

Reinforcement  in column: 45 D, D for Diameter


 the basic point about Foundation


Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer


In any construction, the foundation is provided in order to safely distribute the load of the structure in the soil and before starting the foundation we have to test the soil qualities and its properties to know that the soil can bear the load of the structure. Basically, foundations are the two types


  1. Shallow foundation
  2. Deep foundation

And before we go with pipe foundation we should know that the pipe foundation is adopted when the soil bearing capacity is less than 24KN/M^3.


The basic point about column-Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer


Basically, the column is a vertical member in a building or any structure which is support structural load transferred by the whole structure through a beam after that column transfer the load to the footing, and the footing further transfers it to the soil. And the removal time period of the column for work is 24 hours from the date of casting.


Masonry works-Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer


Basic site knowledge for a civil engineer
construction wall


Masonry works is a most important part of any construction so any civil engineer should know properly .by this knowledge a civil engineer can help to reduce the cost estimation of any project.


A mason can cover 25 to 30 m^3 bricks work in a day, the works progress also depends on the skill of the mason and their knowledge .a mason is responsible for the bricks works, plaster works, finishing, concrete, etc.


And mason leads the helpers to complete the work in the proper ways. A well-skilled mason has some basic knowledge. They should know how to use the measurement tap, their common use tools, etc.


In masonry works it’s important to know that the inner wall plaster size is 12mm, for roof plaster it should be 6-8 mm, and the outer wall should be 14mm -16mm, but it is also not fixed can change also according to the structure.


Sharing Is Caring:

A dedicated civil engineer with more than 5 years of practical experience in construction as a site engineer founded our company. I am passionate about all things civil engineering and construction. My mission is to make the complex field of civil engineering accessible to everyone.

Leave a Comment